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No fruit juice before child's first birthday, new guidance suggests

May 22, 2017, 6:51 PM

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Gender confirmation surgeries on the rise in the U.S.

From an early age Gearah Goldstein knew that her gender did not align with her body.

"I grew up in a very affirming and loving home but back in my childhood that meant making sure I was comfortable understanding that I was a boy," she told CBS News.

But Goldstein never attained this comfort with the gender she was given at birth, and it wasn't until she got older that she learned she could do something about it.

After undergoing a series of "feminization" surgeries – procedures meant to make her appearance look more typically female – she says her exterior now matches how she's always known to be true on the inside.

"Your body is a reflection of your mind. For some people, it's too hard to separate the two, and I was one of them. I could no longer drive around in the body that didn't fit who I believed I was," Goldstein, now 50, said.

These types of procedures – called gender confirmation surgeries – are on the rise in the United States, according to new research.

For the first time, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) tracked the number of gender confirmation surgeries across the country.

The data showed that more than 3,200 transfeminine and transmasculine surgeries were performed in 2016 – a 19 percent increase from the year before.

Loren Schechter, M.D., a board-certified plastic surgeon based in Chicago, explains that there's a wide range of surgical options that someone may choose to treat gender dysphoria, which is a disconnect between how an individual feels and what that person's anatomic characteristics are. These procedures can include everything from facial and body contouring to much more extensive reassignment surgeries.

"There's not a one-size-fits-all approach," Schechter told CBS News.

He also emphasized that surgery is just one component of overall care for a transgender individual. A plastic surgeon will work with a team of medical experts from specialists in hormone therapy to mental health professionals to urologists to help patients through their transitions.

Goldstein emphasized that these surgeries are "corrective, not cosmetic." She said the procedures allowed her to finally feel free in her own body.

"For most of my life, I didn't know what it was like to go about your day and not constantly think about my gender," she said. "I wasn't able to experience this until after my transition. I'm not even sure when that happened but at some point I stopped thinking about it and the freedom from that constant thought process is indescribable. I'm free from it and have all this time and space to fill my experience with memories and emotions when I didn't have that before."

Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons undergo special training to be able to help address the specific needs of transgender patients .

"Board-certified plastic surgeons undergo rigorous training that is designed to not only provide the safest and best quality care, but also give patients a variety of options when it

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That famous map of tastes on the tongue is all wrong

Steven D. Munger  is associate director of the University of Florida Center for Smell and Taste and professor of pharmacology and therapeutics at the University of Florida.


Everybody has seen the tongue map – that little diagram of the tongue with different sections neatly cordoned off for different taste receptors. Sweet in the front, salty and sour on the sides and bitter at the back.

It's possibly the most recognizable symbol in the study of taste, but it's wrong. In fact, it was debunked by chemosensory scientists (the folks who study how organs, like the tongue, respond to chemical stimuli) long ago.

The ability to taste sweet, salty, sour and bitter isn't sectioned off to different parts of the tongue. The receptors that pick up these tastes are actually distributed all over. We've known this for a long time.

And yet you probably saw the map in school when you learned about taste. So where did it come from?

Origins of the taste map

That familiar but not-quite-right map has its roots in a 1901 paper, Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes , by German scientist David P Hänig.

Hänig set out to measure the thresholds for taste perception around the edges of the tongue (what he referred to as the "taste belt") by dripping stimuli corresponding to salty, sweet, sour and bitter tastes in intervals around the edges of the tongue.

It is true that the tip and edges of the tongue are particularly sensitive to tastes, as these areas contain many tiny sensory organs called taste buds.

Hänig found that there was some variation around the tongue in how much stimulus it took for a taste to register. Though his research never tested for the now-accepted fifth basic taste, umami (the savory taste of glutamate, as in monosodium glutamate or MSG), Hänig's hypothesis generally holds up. Different parts of the tongue do have a lower threshold for perceiving certain tastes, but these differences are rather minute.

351px-taste-buds-svg.png

The taste map: 1) Bitter; 2) Sour; 3) Salt; 4) Sweet.

MesserWoland via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA

The problem isn't with Hänig's findings. It's how he decided to present that information. When Hänig published his results, he included a line graph of his measurements. The graph plots the relative change in sensitivity for each taste from one point to the next, not against other tastes.

It was more of an artistic interpretation of his measurements than an accurate representation of them. And that made it look as though different parts of the tongue were responsible for different tastes, rather than showing that some parts of the tongue were slightly more sensitive to certain tastes than others.

But that artful interpretation still doesn't get us to the taste map. For that, we need to look to Edwin G Boring. In the 1940s, this graph was reimagined by Boring, a Harvard psychology professor, in his book Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology .

Boring's version also had no meaningful scale, leading to each

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Doctors' advice about fruit juice for kids

May 22, 2017, 11:45 AM

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Aggressive treatment for sepsis can save lives

WASHINGTON -- Minutes matter when it comes to treating sepsis , the killer condition that most Americans probably have never heard of, and new research shows it's time they learn.

Sepsis is the body's out-of-control reaction to an infection. By the time patients realize they're in trouble, their organs could be shutting down.

New York became the first state to require that hospitals follow aggressive steps when they suspect sepsis is brewing. Researchers examined patients treated there in the past two years and reported Sunday that faster care really is better.

Every additional hour it takes to give antibiotics and perform other key steps increases the odds of death by 4 percent, according to the study reported at an American Thoracic Society meeting and in the New England Journal of Medicine.

That's not just news for doctors or for other states considering similar rules. Patients also have to reach the hospital in time.

"Know when to ask for help," said Dr. Christopher Seymour, a critical care specialist at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine who led the study. "If they're not aware of sepsis or know they need help, we can't save lives."

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last year began a major campaign to teach people that while sepsis starts with vague symptoms, it's a medical emergency.

To make sure the doctor doesn't overlook the possibility, "Ask, 'Could this be sepsis ?'" advised the CDC's Dr. Lauren Epstein.

Once misleadingly called blood poisoning or a bloodstream infection, sepsis occurs when the body goes into overdrive while fighting an infection, injuring its own tissue. The cascade of inflammation and other damage can lead to shock, amputations, organ failure or death.

It strikes more than 1.5 million people in the United States a year and kills more than 250,000.

Even a minor infection can be the trigger. A recent CDC study found nearly 80 percent of sepsis cases began outside of the hospital, not in patients already hospitalized because they were super-sick or recovering from surgery.

In addition to symptoms of infection, worrisome signs can include shivering, a fever or feeling very cold; clammy or sweaty skin; confusion or disorientation; a rapid heartbeat or pulse; confusion or disorientation; shortness of breath; or simply extreme pain or discomfort.

If you think you have an infection that's getting worse, seek care immediately, Epstein said.

Doctors have long known that rapidly treating sepsis is important. But there's been debate over how fast. New York mandated in 2013 that hospitals follow "protocols," or checklists, of certain steps within three hours, including performing a blood test for infection, checking blood levels of a sepsis marker called lactate, and beginning antibiotics.

Do the steps make a difference? Seymour's team examined records of nearly 50,000 patients treated at New York hospitals over two years. About 8 in 10 hospitals met the three-hour deadline; some got them done in about an hour. Having those three main steps performed faster was better -- a finding that

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